A truck (a heavy load vehicle) – is a means of transport intended for load transportation. The concept of a “truck” has a rather broad definition and includes tractor units, as well as commercial vehicles and even pick-ups. A truck consists of a traction part and a load platform. Now let’s take into consideration trucks with the integral load platform and the GVW that reaches up to 7, 5 tons. The principal classification of trucks can be made on the basis of their load-carrying capability:
- light commercial trucks with the GVW of 7, 5-15 tons, such as Renault Master, VW Crafter and Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
- medium duty trucks with the GVW of 15-40 tons, like Volvo FL or Volvo FE, designed for urban or regional transportations
- heavy-duty trucks with the GVW of 40-100 tons, designed for laborious constructions (Volvo FMX, Renault C and Iveco Trakker)
- super-heavy duty trucks (dumpers) with the GVW of 100-400 tons, for example, BelAz 7560, 7571, Cat 797 F, etc.
Load platforms, depending on the intended purpose of use, can look like an open, shut, tilt-covered or isothermal bed, a refrigerator and a dump truck. Trucks can be equipped with special storage tanks to transfer liquids, including hazardous liquids.
Trucks’ axle configuration may vary from 4x2 to 8x8 according to the engine capacity and the purpose of a truck. Thus, quarry and construction dump trucks are equipped with 4x4, 6x4, 6x6 and 8x6 wheel-bases more often. Trucks’ chassis or frames are made of long-wearing and impact-resistant metals and are coated with corrosion resistant or nano-ceramic materials.
During the design process much attention is paid to the flow of force on wheels, in other words, to the gearbox and axles. Municipal and delivery models are notable for the low-end torque, what helps to preserve high mobility in urban areas. The gearbox of dump trucks and construction trucks are designed with short intervals between gear ratios to provide operation in all possible conditions, for instance, when a loaded truck is moving uphill or crossing off-road zones. Drive axles are fitted with both standard and wheel reduction gears, due to which the GVW increases twofold.
Trucks get equipped with passive and active car safety systems in order to use the truck in urban areas or on the routes. These systems include hill hold control and self-adjusting headlights. Moreover, a contemporary truck meets the requirements which concern driver’s comfort and the ergonomics of the interior part of the vehicle, starting with a shift lever switch and ending with a place to sleep on.